Thursday, April 29, 2010


Lucky Philip Dube (pronounced doo-bay)[1] (August 3, 1964 – October 18, 2007) was a South African reggae musician. He recorded 22 albums in Zulu, English and Afrikaans in a 25-year period and was South Africa's biggest selling reggae artist.[2][3] Dube was murdered in the Johannesburg suburb of Rosettenville on the evening of 18 October 2007.

Lucky Dube was born in Ermelo, formerly of the Eastern Transvaal, now of Mpumalanga, on August 3, 1964. His parents separated before his birth and he was raised by his mother, Sarah, who named him because she considered his birth fortunate after a number of failed pregnancies. [6] Along with his two siblings, Thandi and Patrick, Dube spent much of his childhood with his grandmother, while his mother relocated to work. In a 1999 interview he described his grandmother as "his greatest love" who "multiplied many things to bring up this responsible individual that I am today."

Beginning of his musical career

As a child Dube worked as a gardener but, as he matured, realizing that he wasn't earning enough to feed his family, he began to attend school. There he joined a choir and, with some friends, formed his first musical ensemble, called The Skyway Band.[8] While at school he discovered the Rastafari movement. At the age of 18 Dube joined his cousin's band, The Love Brothers, playing Zulu pop music known as mbaqanga whilst funding his lifestyle by working for Hole and Cooke as a security guard at the car auctions in Midrand. The band signed with Teal Record Company, under Richard Siluma (Teal was later incorporated into Gallo Record Company). Though Dube was still at school, the band recorded material in Johannesburg during his school holidays. The resultant album was released under the name Lucky Dube and the Supersoul. The second album was released soon afterwards, and this time Dube wrote some of the lyrics in addition to singing. It was around this same time when he began to learn English.

Moving into reggae

On the release of his fifth Mbaqanga album, Dave Segal (who became Dube's sound engineer) encouraged him to drop the "Supersoul" element of the name. All subsequent albums were recorded as Lucky Dube. At this time Dube began to note fans were responding positively to some reggae songs he played during live concerts. Drawing inspiration from Jimmy Cliff and Peter Tosh, he felt the socio-political messages associated with Jamaican reggae were relevant to a South African audience in an institutionally racist society.

He decided to try the new musical genre and in 1984, released the mini album Rastas Never Die. The record sold poorly - around 4000 units - in comparison to the 30,000 units his mbaqanga records would sell. Keen to suppress anti-apartheid activism, the apartheid regime banned the album in 1985. However, he was not discouraged and continued to perform the reggae tracks live and wrote and produced a second reggae album. Think About The Children (1985). It achieved platinum sales status and established Dube as a popular reggae artist in South Africa, in addition to attracting attention outside his homeland.

Commercial and critical success
Dube continued to release commercially successful albums. In 1989 he won four OKTV Awards for Prisoner, won another for Captured Live the following year and yet another two for House Of Exile the year after.[11] His 1993 album, Victims sold over one million copies worldwide.[2] In 1995 he earned a worldwide recording contract with Motown. His album Trinity was the first release on Tabu Records after Motown's acquisition of the label.

In 1996 he released a compilation album, Serious Reggae Business, which led to him being named the "Best Selling African Recording Artist" at the World Music Awards and the "International Artist Of The Year" at the Ghana Music Awards. His next three albums each won South African Music Awards. His most recent album, Respect, earned a European release through a deal with Warner Music. Dube toured internationally, sharing stages with artists such as Sinéad O'Connor, Peter Gabriel and Sting. [9] He appeared at the 1991 Reggae Sunsplash (uniquely that year, was invited back on stage for a 25 minute long encore) and the 2005 Live 8 event in Johannesburg.

In addition to performing music Dube was a sometime actor, appearing in the feature films Voice In The Dark, Getting Lucky and Lucky Strikes Back.
On October 18, 2007, Lucky Dube was killed in the Johannesburg suburb of Rosettenville shortly after dropping two of his seven children off at their uncle's house [13]. Dube was driving his Chrysler 300C which the assailants were apparently after. Police reports suggest he was shot dead by carjackers. Five men have been arrested in connection with the murder[14]. Three men were tried and found guilty on March 31, 2009; two of the men attempted to escape and were caught.[15] The men were sentenced to life in prison.[16]

He is survived by his wife, Zanele, and his seven children.

On October 21, 2008, Rykodisc released a compilation album entitled Retrospective, which featured many of Dube's most influential songs as well as previously unreleased tracks in the United States. The album celebrated Dube's music and honored the contributions he made to South Africa.



Reginald Abraham Mengi, a Tanzanian industrialist and media tycoon,a lutheran member, is the founder and Executive Chairman of IPP Group, one of East Africa's largest privately owned companies, based in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.


A chartered accountant by training, Reginald Mengi created the IPP business conglomerate in the mid 1980s after serving as Chairman and Managing Partner of Coopers & Lybrand in Tanzania.


The IPP Group, which started as a small scale hand operated ball point assembly plant in Dar es Salaam, has expanded and diversified to become one of the largest industrial groups in East Africa. Among other activities, it encompasses a Financial Consulting firm (IPP Consulting), a soft drinks bottling company in joint venture with Coca-Cola (Coca-Cola Kwanza, Bonite Bottlers and Kilimanjaro Spring Water), Tanzania's leading manufacturer of soaps, detergents and toothpaste (IPP Bodycare Ltd), as well as a media unit which is made up of eleven newspapers, three radio stations and two television channels, one which operates in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda (IPP Media). These include The Guardian Ltd., which publishes some of Tanzania's leading weekly and Sunday newspapers: The Guardian, The Sunday Observer, The Daily Mail, and the Financial Times in English and Nipashe, Nipashe Jumapili, Alasiri, Kasheshe, and Taifa Letu in Kiswahili, Independent Television Ltd. (ITV), East Africa Television (EATV, formerly Channel 5)), Radio ONE, Sky-FM (in a joint venture with BBC) and East Africa Radio.

His long experience and success in doing business in Africa has taken him to participate in a large number of national and international business as well as taking an active interest in private sector development. To this effect, he has been a long-time advocate of promoting good governance in Africa as well as enhancing technical and managerial skills in the private sector, as key mechanisms for improving the business environment and attracting foreign direct investment to the continent. However, as a leading media tycoon, he has also called on the African press not to follow the international media's inclination to portray only the negative aspects and constraints of doing business in Africa, since these only reinforce certain stereotypes, overshadow the business opportunities that exist in the continent and has a detrimental effect on potential foreign investors.

As a leading member of the business community Reginald Mengi has served as Chairman of Tanzania's National Board of Business Accountants and Auditors, of Tanzania's Chapter of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), and of the Tanzanian Chapter of the Commonwealth Press Union (PCU). He has also participated in several fora organised under the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), met with various African and Latin American leaders and is a member of the Board of Management of the Commonwealth Business Council (CBC).

Mr Mengi is married to Mercy and together they have three children, daughter Regina and son Abdiel and another son Mutie who is said to have died of heart complications. Currently Mr Mengi is estranged and lives separate from his wife. Some tabloids have reported that he married another wife, a young lawyer, Lilian Kimaro, although he is reported to have denied this.

In addition to his interests in business and industry, Reginald Mengi has been involved in a number of charities and other social activities, especially in the areas of health, environmental management and poverty alleviation. He has been a leading advocate of involving the private sector in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, and was appointed member of Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS). During his term as a commissioner of TACAIDS, he sparked a nationwide debate over the use and distribution of condoms, giving him the nickname of "Mr. Condom" and putting him in confrontation with Christian and Muslim leaders, after criticising them for their position against the use of condoms as a central instrument in the fight against the propagation of HIV/AIDS.

In relation to his interests in environmental issues, he is Chairman of the National Environment Management Council ](NEMC), the Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Committee (PAEC), patron of the LEAD Global Environmental Network in Tanzania and treasurer of Leadership for Environment and Development (LEAD) international. This non-governmental, non-profit organisation established in 1991 by the Rockefeller Foundation, is committed to sustainable development and provides training for selected mid-career professionals from a variety of sectors in society. He has also been an important sponsor and benefactor of the Kilimanjaro Forestation Campaign and of several projects for youth employment and disabled people. Most recently, Reginald Mengi began building The Rodney Mutie Mengi Heart Institute in memory of his son who died on October 6, 2005 from heart complications. In the meantime he has begun sponsoring children in Tanzania with heart problems to travel abroad for treatment.

In recognition to his work, leadership and contributions in a wide range of business and social activities Reginald Mengi has been awarded the Order of the United Republic of Tanzania, the Order of the Arusha Declaration of the First Class for his exemplary contribution to Tanzania's Development, The East African Environment Leadership Award, and the Environmentalist of the Century Award 2000 in the Kilimanjaro region.

Mengi also holds the following positions:

* Chairman of the National Environment Management Council (NEMC) of Tanzania.
* Commissioner of Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS).
* Chairman of the Confederation of Tanzania Industries (CTI).
* Investment Committee Chairman of the National Investments Company Limited (NICO).


Wahu Kagwi (born c. 1980), performing under the name Wahu, is a musician from Kenya.
Wahu is a former model and University of Nairobi student, graduating in mathematics [1]. She started her musical career in 2000. Her first three singles were "Niangalie", "Esha" and "Liar" [2]. Wahu released her first major hit, "Sitishiki" around 2005 [3]. Her music has been produced by the Ogopa DJ's [4].

She is married to Nameless, another award-winning Kenyan musician. They have a daughter,Tumiso Nyakwea, to whom she dedicated her biggest hit to date "Sweet Love"
er music and lyrical style is a depiction of the attitude borne by this emergent class progressive women who see themselves as intellectual equals of their male counterparts.

Wahu's journey into the Kenyan music scene was however not without a struggle.

Faced by prevalent public opinion that insinuated hopelessness as far as the Kenyan entertainment scene was concerned, Wahu was often dissuaded from taking her musical pursuits with seriousness; "Be realistic" They often said, "You're better off getting yourself a respectable good white collar job"

There is of course a lot of truth in these statements; after all, the "respectable white collar jobs" are history's tested tried and true way of achieving financial stability and societal respect, right? Wrong- to a large extent.

History also shows us that only those who were daring and bold enough to follow their dreams, only those few with the courage to go against the tidal flow, only those made their mark in history, and to date, are remembered and honored for their contributions towards societal growth.

With this as a driving force, Wahu opted to go against the prevalent attitude and pursue her musical ambitions.

While a student at Precious Blood Secondary School , Riruta, Wahu, together with a friend, wrote her first song, " Showers of Blessings" As a tribute to God for the national academic success that the school enjoyed.

The song is, to date, still part of the schools hymnal collection. On completion of her high school education, Wahu began working with various media houses on TV and radio jingles.

The moneys from these short contracts went towards her university education at the University of Nairobi , where she pursued a Bachelors degree in Mathematics.

Just as she had found the courage to express thoughts opinions of others in the jingles that she wrote and recorded, Wahu soon found the courage to record her own thoughts and opinions in song, for radio airplay.

Her first song ' Niangalie' drew the attention of renowned CBN presenter Victor Oladokhun, who aired it on his 'TURNING POINT' program, and was seen by millions all across the world.

Her second song ' Esha ' was a fusion of English Swahili and Kikuyu based on a traditional Kikuyu folk song, and inspired by the late Brenda Fassie The success enjoyed by these songs encouraged her to write " Liar " and " Sitishiki " both of which have and continue to enjoy extensive airplay both locally and regionally.

Her musical prowess has not only seen her work alongside prominent companies on promotional material, but has also facilitated her travels across the world on international tours, sharing stages with prominent international music icons such as Sean Paul and Wayne Wonder.

The young artist is currently working on an album, scheduled for release later on in the year (2005) Indeed, by sticking to her motto " You've only got one life- use it well",

Wahu has proven that despite public opinion, despite the tidal waves that often wash over our aspirations, dreams can come true- only if you try.

Monday, April 26, 2010


Kofi A. Annan of Ghana, the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations, is the first to be elected from the ranks of UN staff. His first five-year term began on 1 January 1997 and, following his subsequent re-appointment by the UN Member States, he will begin a second five-year term on 1 January 2002.

As Secretary-General, Mr. Annan has given priority to revitalizing the UN through a comprehensive programme of reform; strengthening the Organization's traditional work in the areas of development and the maintenance of international peace and security; advocating human rights, the rule of law and the universal values of equality, tolerance and human dignity; restoring public confidence in the Organization by reaching out to new partners and, in his words, by "bringing the United Nations closer to the people". The Secretary-General has also taken a leading role in mobilizing the international community in the battle against HIV/AIDS, and more recently against the global terrorist threat.

Born in Kumasi, Ghana, on 8 April 1938, Mr. Annan studied at the University of Science and Technology in Kumasi and completed his undergraduate work in economics at Macalester College in the United States in 1961. From 1961 to 1962, he undertook graduate studies in economics at the Institut universitaire des hautes études internationales in Geneva. As a 1971- 1972 Sloan Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mr. Annan received a Master of Science degree in management.

Mr. Annan joined the UN in 1962, working for the World Health Organization in Geneva, where he later also served with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. At UN Headquarters in New York, Mr. Annan held senior positions in a diverse range of areas, including human resources management (1987-1990), budget and finance (1990-1992), and peacekeeping (March 1992-December 1996). He was Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping at a time when nearly 70,000 military and civilian personnel were deployed in UN operations around the world.

Before becoming Secretary-General, Mr. Annan received a number of special assignments. In 1990, he facilitated the repatriation of international staff and citizens of Western countries from Iraq after it invaded Kuwait. He subsequently led initial negotiations with Baghdad on the sale of oil to fund humanitarian relief. From November 1995 to March 1996, Mr. Annan served as the Secretary-General's Special Representative to the former Yugoslavia. As Secretary-General, Mr. Annan has used his good offices in several delicate political situations, including an attempt in 1998 to gain Iraq's compliance with Security Council resolutions, as well as a mission that year to promote the transition to civilian rule in Nigeria. In 1999, he helped to resolve the stalemate between Libya and the Security Council, and to forge an international response to violence in East Timor. In 2000, he certified Israel's withdrawal from Lebanon. Since the renewed outbreak of violence in the Middle East in September 2000, he has worked to encourage Israelis and Palestinians to resolve their differences through negotiations based on Security Council resolutions and the principle of "land for peace".

The Secretary-General has strengthened partnerships with civil society, the private sector and others outside of government whose strengths complement those of the UN. He has called for a "Global Compact" to encourage businesses to respect standards relating to the environment, employment laws and human rights. In April, 2000, he issued a report on the UN's role in the 21st century, outlining actions needed to end poverty and inequality, improve education, cut HIV/AIDS, safeguard the environment and protect peoples from violence. The report formed the basis of the Millennium Declarations adopted by national leaders attending the UN Millennium Summit that September.

Calling the HIV/AIDS epidemic his "personal priority", the Secretary- General issued a "Call to Action" in April, 2001, proposing the establishment of a Global AIDS and Health Fund, which has since received some $ 1.5 billion in pledges and contributions.

Since the terrorist attacks hit the United States on 11 September 2001, the Secretary-General has played a leading role in galvanizing global action through the General Assembly and the Security Council to combat terrorism. The Secretary-General has received honorary degrees from universities in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America, as well as a number of other prizes and awards for his contributions to the aims and purposes of the United Nations.

The Secretary-General is fluent in English, French and several African languages. He is married to Nane Annan, of Sweden, a lawyer and painter who has a great interest in understanding the work of the United Nations in the field. Two issues of particular concern to her are HIV/AIDS and education for women. She has also written a book for children about the United Nations. The Annans have three children.


Kaysha, born Edward Mokolo Jr. on January 22, 1974 in Kinshasa, is a singer/rapper and producer that works on places like the West indies, South America and Africa. He was born in the Democratic Republic of Congo but immigrated to France with his parents at the age of seven. Kaysha is very well known for his first hit single which uses a sample from West Indian band Kassav's Oulé in a song called "Bounce Baby", which introduced him to fans all over the world.

Kaysha's first two hits were "Telephone" and "Bounce baby" from his album I'm Ready. The next year, he changed his whole style to record a more urban album called Worldwidechico with a duo with Wu Tang Clan's Killah Priest. His latest hit to date is "On dit quoi", a huge hit all around Africa, from his album It's All Love, released in his own label Sushiraw.

Kaysha is also a successful music producer. He produced songs for the most known artists in the Afro-Caribbean scene, including Passi, Solaar, Jacob Desvarieux, Soumia, Elizio, Ludo, and others.

Kaysha gained new fans all around the world by doing literally thousands of shows around Africa, the West Indies and anywhere his feet could take him. Kaysha is also a well known artist for most Zouk-Lambada dancers and Kaysha's music goes with the dance to many countries in Europe, Australia, Asia and Americas.

He won a Kora award for best African Artist in 2000. He won a Kora award for best African Artist of the Diaspora in 2004. He appeared on CNN in 2000 and appeared again in 2005 on Inside Africa.

Originally a shy composer, Kaysha found himself on stage with a microphone after winning a beauty contest in Belgium. From then, he toured 6 years and produced tracks for many people in France, including big names. Fustrated by the ways of french major labels and them not believing in his conception of music, he followed a friend in the West Indies. There, it all began…

Kaysha has been nominated to the prestigious MTV Europe video awards and was victorious 3 times in the prestigious “All African KORA awards” as Best African Artist & Best Diaspora artist

Kaysha released 5 solo albums and is the succesful CEO of Sushiraw entertainment.


DaGrin was born Oladapo Olaitan Olanipekun (25/10/1987 -22/04/2010). Mr. Olaitan Olanipekun stage name is DaGrin. He also goes by other aliases such as Original Omoita, DaGrin Lomo Na, Lyrican Trouble, Fimilejo, Omo Onile, Solder Boy, Lyrical Wayray, Molenubi, Misofuyin, Omo Ogun, Akogun, Barack O'Grin, Chief Executive Omoita and other.

DaGrin went Rosemary Nursery and Primary School and Good Shepherd Nursery and Primary School before attaining his secondary school education at the Community High School, Egbado College. Mr. Olaitan's attempts to gain admission to Nigeria’s tertiary institutions hit the rock due to financial and family issues. He did however study in a computer institution somewhere around Lagos State. He later decided to invest his time and effort in music since he loves doing music and writing lyrics with great passion.
Personal Life
He was born to a polygamous family; life was never rosy for Olaitan. Olaitan’s mother was the second of his father’s three wives.

Musical Career
DaGrin was a recording artiste, songwriter, rapper and performer. Like any other artiste, the start was rough for DaGrin. Olaitan’s first album titled “Still On the matter” came and went without much impact in the music industry. He was never deterred by the ratings of his first album; he was determined to make a lasting footprint in the music industry. He went back to the studio and re engineer is God given talents. The result of his hard work and persistence was his sophomore album titled "Chief Executive Omoita (C.E.O) and surely, it was a party banger. He was signed to his own label Missofunyin Entertainment and managed by Edlyne Records.

His imprint Mi So Fu Yin Entertainment was gradually taking shape; Dagrin had a performance in and out of Lagos every other week. Everybody wanted him on their album, mixtape, single… it didn’t matter; everybody just wanted a piece of Dagrin.

Just two days before the horrific accident that took away his life occurred; Dagrin was putting together his last song, Show Me the Money, for Lineo ‘Elepepe Master’. On April 14th, just a few hours before the accident, Dagrin paid a visit to the Hip Hop World office in Ikeja. The awards were drawing closer and with three nominations to his name, the hustler’s dream was finally coming true.

Collaboration and Duet
During his brief presence in Nigeria's music industry, DaGrin featured dozens of musicians including Kenny Saint Brown, 9ice, Oluwe, YQ Isolate and others within is short presence in Nigeria Hip-Pop scene. Dagrin is a three-time hip-pop awards nominee; he was nominated in the Album of the Year, Artist of the Year and Best Rap Album categories of the 2010 Hip-Hop World Awards.

Wednesday, April 21, 2010


Sheria Ngowi (Born as Walter Thomas Ngowi on October 1st, 1982 as second born of five children). I am a Tanzanian fashion designer and Founder Of  Sheria Ngowi Designs. I was raised in a middle-class family of  the Late Mr.Thomas Kishari Ngowi and Mrs.Mary Mathias Kessy. My Father was a lawyer while my mother was a Bank Accountant.

I studied Law but my career has taken the path of Fashion Designing. My interest in Fashion has been with me for as long as I can remember, My parents were also an influence especially my father who had a love for fashion and sense of style which inspired me a lot. I remember styling my parents before they left the house for any event and pretty soon I was the family stylist this made me realize I had a talent in Fashion .My designs are heavily influenced by the past. So I blend modern trends with the classic vintage looks and incorporate numerous colors.
My career famously began In 2008 when I debuted my designs for both women and men under Brand name Sheria Na Mavazi In Mysore,India.So Sheria na Mavazi stands for Dressing Principles or Regulations.,
In 2009, I launched my first professional collection under my own name Sheria Ngowi Designs. The Collection was a dedication to my late father who was the driving  force behind my love for fashion. I decided to focus on one gender at a time  to ensure  that I put my all into each of the collections and the women's collection is on the way.

THE IDEA OF Sheria Ngowi Designs.

"My fashion philosophy is similar to my philosophy on life''

The Idea behind Sheria Ngowi Designs is that Fashion is more than the clothes you wear, it's a lifestyle. My goal is to give all the people, especially men & women of color, a platform of inspiration. I will be showcasing all things fashionable and stylish, so step out of your boundaries and try something new! ".My biggest wish is to have my name in an International Fashion Platform, so that my grand kids and their friends could see that it is okay to follow a belief and for my country to be proud of me as a Tanzanian..."

My website is under construction at the moment, once completed interested customers will be supplied with all necessary information concerning how  and where they can purchase my designs.

I currently reside and run a small home studio in Bangalore,India. I make made-to-order suits exclusively custom made to my interested customers.. I will be opening my flagship store in Dar-es-salaam,Tanzania by Next Year 2011.


One of Africa’s most respected figures, Julius Nyerere (1922 — 1999) was a politician of principle and intelligence. Known as Mwalimu or teacher he had a vision of education that was rich with possibility

Julius Kambarage Nyerere was born on April 13, 1922 in Butiama, on the eastern shore of lake Victoria in north west Tanganyika. His father was the chief of the small Zanaki tribe. He was 12 before he started school (he had to walk 26 miles to Musoma to do so). Later, he transferred for his secondary education to the Tabora Government Secondary School. His intelligence was quickly recognized by the Roman Catholic fathers who taught him. He went on, with their help, to train as a teacher at Makerere University in Kampala (Uganda). On gaining his Certificate, he taught for three years and then went on a government scholarship to study history and political economy for his Master of Arts at the University of Edinburgh (he was the first Tanzanian to study at a British university and only the second to gain a university degree outside Africa. In Edinburgh, partly through his encounter with Fabian thinking, Nyerere began to develop his particular vision of connecting socialism with African communal living.

On his return to Tanganyika, Nyerere was forced by the colonial authorities to make a choice between his political activities and his teaching. He was reported as saying that he was a schoolmaster by choice and a politician by accident. Working to bring a number of different nationalist factions into one grouping he achieved this in 1954 with the formation of TANU (the Tanganyika African National Union). He became President of the Union (a post he held until 1977), entered the Legislative Council in 1958 and became chief minister in 1960. A year later Tanganyika was granted internal self-government and Nyerere became premier. Full independence came in December 1961 and he was elected President in 1962.

Nyerere’s integrity, ability as a political orator and organizer, and readiness to work with different groupings was a significant factor in independence being achieved without bloodshed. In this he was helped by the co-operative attitude of the last British governor — Sir Richard Turnbull. In 1964, following a coup in Zanzibar (and an attempted coup in Tanganyika itself) Nyerere negotiated with the new leaders in Zanzibar and agreed to absorb them into the union government. The result was the creation of the Republic of Tanzania.
Ujamma, socialism and self reliance

As President, Nyerere had to steer a difficult course. By the late 1960s Tanzania was one of the world’s poorest countries. Like many others it was suffering from a severe foreign debt burden, a decrease in foreign aid, and a fall in the price of commodities. His solution, the collectivization of agriculture, villigization (see Ujamma below) and large-scale nationalization was a unique blend of socialism and communal life. The vision was set out in the Arusha Declaration of 1967 (reprinted in Nyerere 1968):

"The objective of socialism in the United Republic of Tanzania is to build a society in which all members have equal rights and equal opportunities; in which all can live in peace with their neighbours without suffering or imposing injustice, being exploited, or exploiting; and in which all have a gradually increasing basic level of material welfare before any individual lives in luxury." (Nyerere 1968: 340)

The focus, given the nature of Tanzanian society, was on rural development. People were encouraged (sometimes forced) to live and work on a co-operative basis in organized villages or ujamaa (meaning ‘familyhood’ in Kishwahili). The idea was to extend traditional values and responsibilities around kinship to Tanzania as a whole.

Within the Declaration there was a commitment to raising basic living standards (and an opposition to conspicuous consumption and large private wealth). The socialism he believed in was ‘people-centred’. Humanness in its fullest sense rather than wealth creation must come first. Societies become better places through the development of people rather than the gearing up of production. This was a matter that Nyerere took to be important both in political and private terms. Unlike many other politicians, he did not amass a large fortune through exploiting his position.

The policy met with significant political resistance (especially when people were forced into rural communes) and little economic success. Nearly 10 million peasants were moved and many were effectively forced to give up their land. The idea of collective farming was less than attractive to many peasants. A large number found themselves worse off. Productivity went down. However, the focus on human development and self-reliance did bring some success in other areas notably in health, education and in political identity.
Liberation struggles

A committed pan-Africanist, Nyerere provided a home for a number of African liberation movements including the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan African Congress (PAC) of South Africa, Frelimo when seeking to overthrow Portuguese rule in Mozambique, Zanla (and Robert Mugabe) in their struggle to unseat the white regime in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). He also opposed the brutal regime of Idi Amin in Uganda. Following a border invasion by Amin in 1978, a 20,000-strong Tanzanian army along with rebel groups, invaded Uganda. It took the capital, Kampala, in 1979, restoring Uganda’s first President, Milton Obote, to power. The battle against Amin was expensive and placed a strain on government finances. There was considerable criticism within Tanzania that he had both overlooked domestic issues and had not paid proper attention to internal human rights abuses. Tanzania was a one party state — and while there was a strong democratic element in organization and a concern for consensus, this did not stop Nyerere using the Preventive Detention Act to imprison opponents. In part this may have been justified by the need to contain divisiveness, but there does appear to have been a disjuncture between his commitment to human rights on the world stage, and his actions at home.

In 1985 Nyerere gave up the Presidency but remained as chair of the Party - Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM). He gradually withdrew from active politics, retiring to his farm in Butiama. In 1990 he relinquished his chairmanship of CCM but remained active on the world stage as Chair of the Intergovernmental South Centre. One of his last high profile actions was as the chief mediator in the Burundi conflict (in 1996). He died in a London hospital of leukaemia on October 14, 1999.


Emmanuel Adebayor (born February 26, 1984 in Lomé, Togo) is a Togolese football player who currently plays for Arsenal. He had previously played for FC Metz and AS Monaco. Nicknamed "Sheyi", he is of Nigerian descent via his parents who were born in the Osun State in south-west Nigeria.

Metz and Monaco
Adebayor started his professional career at a training camp in Lomé. He made it to Under-15 level and was spotted by French club, FC Metz. After a trial, Adebayor joined the club in 1999, and after playing at Under-17 level for two years he moved up to the first team. In his first season, he played nine games and scored twice, however he could not stop them from being relegated. In the 2002-03 season Adebayor scored 17 goals in 35 games, which attracted the attention of top clubs including Arsenal and Juventus.

However, it was AS Monaco who signed him. In the 2003-04 season he scored seven goals in 17 matches for them, helping them to reach the UEFA Champions League final with two goals in ten games.

On January 13, 2006, Adebayor signed for Arsenal for an undisclosed fee, which is rumoured to be around £7 million. He was assigned shirt number 25, which previously belonged to, amongst others, Nigerian striker Nwankwo Kanu. In an interview with Arsenal.com, Adebayor said that he chose that shirt number because he idolised Kanu while he was a young player. Like Kanu, he also wears the number 4 shirt when playing for his national team. The two players also share an extraordinary physical resemblance, earning Adebayor the affectionate nickname 'Baby Kanu' in homage to the former Arsenal man

Arsenal Career
On February 4, 2006, he made his Arsenal début in a Premiership match at Birmingham City and scored after 21 minutes; Arsenal won 2-0. At the end of his first season for the Gunners he had scored 4 goals in 10 matches. However, Adebayor was cup-tied for Arsenal's 2006 Champions League run and missed the final against FC Barcelona, as he had appeared for Monaco in the Champions League the season prior to his January transfer.

On the international front, Adebayor helped Togo qualify for the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany by scoring 11 goals in the qualifiers, the most in the African qualification tournament. He has been nominated twice for African Footballer of the Year.

His first footballing action following his move to Arsenal came for Togo at the 2006 African Cup of Nations, where he was only a substitute for the country's first match. Adebayor first vowed to leave the tournament and return home, although he later rescinded and resumed training with the side . He played in Togo's two remaining fixtures, where he impressed despite not scoring; Togo were eliminated after losing all three matches.